Original Research

The magnitude and determinants of depressive symptoms amongst women in early pregnancy in Southern Nigeria: A cross-sectional study

Omolola F. Oboro, Vincent Ebulue, Victor O. Oboro, Victor Ohenhen, Adeoye Oyewole, Rasaq Akindele, Olufemi Ala, Olaolu Oyeniran, Adegboyega Isawumi, Babatunde Afolabi
South African Journal of Psychiatry | Vol 28 | a1691 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v28i0.1691 | © 2022 Omolola F. Oboro, Vincent Ebulue, Victor O. Oboro, Victor Ohenhen, Adeoye Oyewole, Rasaq Akindele, Olufemi Ala, Olaolu Oyeniran, Adegboye Isawumi, Babatunde Afolabi | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 30 January 2021 | Published: 31 May 2022

About the author(s)

Omolola F. Oboro, Perinatal Mental Health Unit, OMVIAL Medical Group, Benin-City, Nigeria
Vincent Ebulue, Perinatal Mental Health Unit, OMVIAL Medical Group, Benin-City, Nigeria
Victor O. Oboro, Perinatal Mental Health Unit, OMVIAL Medical Group, Benin-City, Nigeria
Victor Ohenhen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Central Hospital Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria
Adeoye Oyewole, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Rasaq Akindele, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
Olufemi Ala, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
Olaolu Oyeniran, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
Adegboyega Isawumi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
Babatunde Afolabi, Department of General Practice, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria


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Abstract

Background: Antenatal depression (AD) is prevalent and associated with adverse pregnancy, maternal and child outcomes, yet no study has addressed its magnitude and predictors in early pregnancy in Nigeria.

Aim: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with AD in first half of pregnancy.

Setting: Multicentric health facilities in Southern Nigeria.

Methods: A multicentric health-facilities-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to July 2018. Using pretested structure interviewer-administered questionnaires, antenatal depressive symptoms were assessed amongst 511 pregnant mothers with the Edinburg Postnatal Depressive Scale tool. Socio-demographic, socio-economic, clinical, family and social factors were also measured. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to describe and identify factors associated with AD.

Results: The prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy in this study was 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 26.6–32.9). Factors independently associated with AD were intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 8.10, 95% CI 5.00–13.14), marital dissatisfaction (AOR 5.48, 95% CI 3.48–8.38), poor social support (AOR 4.70; 95% CI 2.99–7.38), past history of depression (AOR 4.67; 95% CI 2.47–8.80), previous pregnancy complication (AOR 2.50, 95% CI 1.57–3.89), low socio-economic status (AOR 2.41, 95% CI 1.61–3.66) and unplanned pregnancy (AOR 2.35, 95% CI 1.47–3.64).

Conclusions: The prevalence of antenatal depression is high with modifiable risk factors requiring context-specific policies such as provision of family, social and economic support for mothers at the earliest possible contact in the antenatal period.


Keywords

depression; pregnancy; antenatal; magnitude; determinants

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