Original Research

The prevalence of depression and its associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary clinic in Gaborone, Botswana

Thato Moshomo, Yordanka Pina Rivera, Judith Boshe, Godfrey M. Rwegerera
South African Journal of Psychiatry | Vol 28 | a1647 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v28i0.1647 | © 2022 Thato Moshomo, Yordanka Pina Rivera, Judith Boshe, Godfrey M. Rwegerera | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 27 October 2020 | Published: 28 February 2022

About the author(s)

Thato Moshomo, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
Yordanka Pina Rivera, Department of Medicine, Sidilega Private Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana
Judith Boshe, Department of Psychiatry, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania, United Republic of
Godfrey M. Rwegerera, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone; Department of Medicine, Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana


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Abstract

Background: Depression is one of the commonest co-existing medical conditions among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A bidirectional relationship between depression and DM exists, complicating glycaemic control leading to an increase in diabetic complications. There is a dearth of information regarding the prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with DM in Botswana.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and associated factors among patients with DM. The study also assessed the association between depression and glycaemic control.

Setting: A tertiary diabetic referral clinic in Gaborone, Botswana.

Method: A sample of 260 randomly selected patients with DM was recruited in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were collected using a case report form. Depression was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 scale. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine factors significantly associated with depression.

Results: The mean age (standard deviation [s.d.]) of study participants was 58.4 (11.8) years, and the majority, 160/260 (61.5%), were females. The prevalence of depression was 30.4% and significantly associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.529, p-value = 0.004), three or more diabetes-related hospitalisations (AOR = 3.886, p-value = 0.049) and inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg (AOR = 0.11, p-value = 0.001).

Conclusion: Depression is a common problem among patients with DM in our setting. Routine screening of depression in diabetic patients to enable early detection and treatment is recommended.


Keywords

depression; diabetes mellitus; prevalence; glycaemic control; Botswana

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