Original Research

Suicidal behaviour among patients with congestive cardiac failure in a Nigerian teaching hospital

Tomilola O. Shofu-Akanji, Bolanle A. Ola, Dapo A. Adegbaju, Adeola O. Ajibare, Adefemi A. Adeoye, Ismail O. Adesina
South African Journal of Psychiatry | Vol 30 | a2204 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v30i0.2204 | © 2024 Tomilola O. Shofu-Akanji, Bolanle A. Ola, Dapo A. Adegbaju, Adeola O. Ajibare, Adefemi A. Adeoye, Ismail O. Adesina | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 06 October 2023 | Published: 23 April 2024

About the author(s)

Tomilola O. Shofu-Akanji, Department of Clinical Services, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Bolanle A. Ola, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria
Dapo A. Adegbaju, Department of Clinical Services, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Adeola O. Ajibare, Department of Cardiology, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria
Adefemi A. Adeoye, Department of Clinical Services, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
Ismail O. Adesina, Department of Clinical Services, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract

Background: Suicidal behaviour is an established psychiatric complication of congestive cardiac failure (CCF), contributing significantly to morbidity and death by suicide. The magnitude and risk factors for suicidal behaviour among patients with CCF are yet to be unpacked, especially in developing nations such as Nigeria.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the risk factors associated with suicidal behaviour, among patients with CCF in Nigeria.

Setting: Cardiology outpatient clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 98 randomly selected patients with a diagnosis of CCF. Participants were assessed with a socio-demographic and clinical factors questionnaire and Beck Scale of Suicidal Ideation. Chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression were used to analyse data.

Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt among patients with CCF was 52% and 1%, respectively. No socio-demographic factor was significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Clinical factors associated with suicidal ideation were age at diagnosis (p = 0.042), aetiology of CCF (p = 0.001) and severity of CCF (p = 0.032). Only the severity of CCF (odds ratio [OR] = 20.557, p = 0.014) predicted suicidal ideation among patients with CCF.

Conclusion: Suicidal behaviour constitutes a huge burden among the outpatient CCF population. The identification of clinical risk factors for suicidal ideation (age at diagnosis, aetiology and severity of CCF) further illuminates a pathway to mortality among patients with CCF.

Contribution: The findings lend a voice to the need for screening for suicidal behaviour, suicide prevention programmes, surveillance systems and government policies that support mental health for patients with CCF.


Keywords

congestive cardiac failure; heart failure; suicidal behaviour; suicidal ideation; suicidal attempt; sociodemographic factors; clinical factors

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

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