Original Research

Undiagnosed metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects among clozapine users of Xhosa descent

N Faasen, Dana J H Niehaus, L Koen, E Jordaan
South African Journal of Psychiatry | Vol 20, No 2 | a528 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v20i2.528 | © 2014 N Faasen, Dana J H Niehaus, L Koen, E Jordaan | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 22 November 2013 | Published: 30 July 2014

About the author(s)

N Faasen, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stikland Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa, South Africa
Dana J H Niehaus, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stikland Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa, South Africa
L Koen, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stikland Hospital and Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa, South Africa
E Jordaan, Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Bellville, South Africa, and Department of Statistics and Population Studies, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa, South Africa

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Abstract

Background. Clozapine use is known to be associated with significant side-effects, including prolongation of the QT-interval, agranulocytosis and metabolic syndrome. However, few data exist on the prevalence of clozapine side-effects in patients of Xhosa descent. 

Objective. To gather data from Xhosa patients with schizophrenia to establish the prevalence of clozapine side-effects in this population. 

Methods. Twenty-nine Xhosa patients with schizophrenia (as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)) who had been receiving clozapine treatment for >1 year on an outpatient basis were selected for inclusion. All patients were participating in a genetics study in the Cape Metropolitan area. The participants were evaluated for the presence of side-effects (tests including an electrocardiogram, white blood cell count (WCC) and fasting blood glucose). 

Results. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 44.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.7 - 62.9) and of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus 13.8% (95% CI 1.24 - 26.34). There was a significant association between metabolic syndrome and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.01). The mean (SD) WCC was 7.8 × 109/L (2.8), with 3.4% of the subjects having a WCC <3.5 × 109/L. Sedation (82.8%; 95% CI 69.0 - 96.5), hypersalivation (79.3%; 95% CI 64.6 - 94.1) and constipation (44.8%; 95% CI 26.7 - 62.9) were common. The mean QT-interval was 373.8 (35.9) ms and 10% had a corrected QT-interval >440 ms. There was an association between the duration of clozapine treatment and QT-interval (with Bazett’s correction).  

Conclusion. The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in this sample points to a need to monitor glucose levels and BMI on a regular basis. A larger study should be done to accurately quantify the differences in prevalence of side-effects between population groups.


Keywords

Metabolic syndrome; Xhosa; Body mass index; Schizophrenia; Clozapine

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